In a large pot over medium heat, sauté onion and garlic with olive oil, stir often for about 5 minutes. Add sausage and cook until no longer pink, breaking into bite sized pieces as it cooks. Add chicken broth, tomato sauce, diced tomatoes, red wine, spices, and penne pasta along with 1 1/2 cups of water. Stirring often, bring to a high simmer. Reduce heat a bit and cook until pasta is al dente, about 10-12 minutes.
Add spinach to the soup along with the white beans. Add a little more water if the mixture is too thick. Stir until all is heated through, about 5 minutes. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Serve in individual soup bowls and sprinkle the parmesan cheese over the top. Serves 6-8.